Either a definite (the) or an indefinite (a, an) article is used with a singular countable noun (a noun representing a person or thing that can be counted as a single item). You can write either a pencil or the pencil, an eraser or the eraser, a student or the student, an instructor or the instructor.
I’ll be in the library for an hour or two.
(Or: I’ll be there for one or two hours.)
More often a or an has the meaning of “one” in the sense of a single unit or item. In situations of this kind, “one” cannot be substituted for the indefinite article without changing the meaning. Compare the following examples:
The lifeguard saved one swimmer’s life. (But the other swimmer drowned.)
I drank a cup of coffee this morning.
I drank one cup of coffee this morning, but I usually drink two.
Did you buy the book?
Did you buy that book?
When using the definite article in this way, the speaker may further identify the book by adding a qualifying word, phrase, or clause.
Did you buy the chemistry book?
Did you buy the book recommended by the instructor?
She rented a bicycle. (A single item)
She rented the bicycle. (A specific bicycle, such as the Italian bicycle)
Sometimes a writer begins with an indefinite article and then shifts to a definite article once the identity of the person or thing has been established.
A package arrived from Alicia. We put the package on the dining room table.
Since a plural countable noun refers to more than one person or thing, the definite article can be used with it but the indefinite article cannot. You would write either pencils or the pencils, students or the students, and so forth.
He put ice cubes in the glass.
(Or: He put some ice cubes in the glass.)
There aren’t any magazines on the desk.
I don’t see many people at the box office.
We brought a few apples on the picnic.
Newspaper critics can often determine the fate of New York plays.
They like to collect stamps.
I shopped for the cooking utensils.
He used the ice cubes we brought for the party.
The indefinite article is not used with an uncountable noun (a noun representing something that cannot be counted as a single unit or item). The definite article can be used to limit or restrict uncountable nouns. You would write water or the water, strength or the strength, sound or the sound.
Laughter is a tonic. (Uncountable)
The laughter of the audience pleased the actress. (Limited by a definite article.)
The following types of nouns are generally considered uncountable:
They will serve either coffee or tea.
He checked the car’s oil, water, and gasoline and filled the tires with air.
Indefinite adjectives may be used with mass nouns to indicate indefinite quantity.
She spilled some sand on the rug.
There isn’t any pepper in the shaker.
It takes much energy to jog for five miles.
Countable units of measure may be used with mass nouns to indicate definite amounts. Compare the following examples:
Buy a bottle of milk.
The recipe calls for a cup of sugar.
He drank a glass of orange juice.
Darkness comes about 6 o'clock every night.
Wisdom is the goal of many scholars.
She has shown a lot of patience with her daughter.
His courses included English, biology, mathematics, and political science.
She is playing tennis.
He plays hockey well.
The name of a sport or recreational activity that functions as a modifier may be preceded by an article:
He is a valuable hockey player.
Some nouns normally considered uncountable may also function as countable nouns, depending on whether they are being used in an abstract or a more specific sense.
A favorite North African drink is mint tea. (A mass noun)
The teas served in the Orient are varied. (A plural countable noun meaning “the types of tea”)
Wisdom is strength. (Abstract nouns)
She doubted the wisdom of his decision. (A singular countable noun meaning “act of deciding”)
The strengths of your paper are clear. (A plural countable noun meaning “good points”)
Science is a subject that interests many people. (A general area of subject matter)
Would you call astrology a science? (A countable noun meaning “a branch of science”)
Mrs. Allen drove to town this afternoon.
The town has many points of historical interest.
If a single unit or item--A or AN If specific or particular—THE
He read an article about fishing. He read the article in Sports Illustrated
You must reserve a ticket. Did you receive the ticket I mailed you?
Did you buy a dress? I like the blue dress better than the red one.
If general--(no article) If specific or particular--THE
Work can be very therapeutic. I appreciated the work you did.
Copper is mined in Arizona. The copper in this pan has tarnished.
Kindness is a desirable trait. Thank you for the kindness you have shown me.
By proper name, we mean the name of a person or the name of a particular place or thing. As with common nouns, the before a proper name singles out or identifies that which is specific or particular. Generally speaking, no article is required before a proper name when the name is sufficient in itself to establish identification. The would be used only in a situation in which the identification was not clearly established. Compare the following examples:
I met George Anderson last week.
The George Anderson whom I knew in college telephoned yesterday.
The is necessary when a person is referred to by a title composed of what would ordinarily be considered a common noun plus an identifying phrase.
The Emperor of Japan rarely travels abroad.
The Secretary of State flew to Riyadh for the meeting.
Since the use of articles with proper names involves many exceptions, the following list may be helpful:
Geographic Eastern Europe, the North Pole
Areas North Africa, the South Pole
Continents Africa, North America
Countries Colombia, the Republic of
Thailand, Canada Colombia, the
Russia, England, Kingdom of Thailand,
Lebanon the Dominion of Canada, the Soviet Union, the United States (of America)
States Oklahoma, the State of
Counties, Cook County, Oklahoma, the
Provinces, Quebec, Boston, Province of Quebec,
Cities Salt Lake City the City of Boston, The Hague
Empires the Ottoman Empire,
Dynasties, etc. the Ming Dynasty,
the British Commonwealth of Nations
Oceans Seas the Atlantic Ocean,
Rivers, Canals, the Red Sea, the
Deserts, and Forests Tigris River, the Suez Canal,
the Sahara Desert, the Black Forest
Parks Central Park, Hyde Park, Kruger Park
Streets Maple Street, Fifth Avenue,
Elderberry Road, Sunset Boulevard
Universities Yale University, the University of Maryland,
Colleges New York University, the College of Holy Names,
Schools, Wellesley College, the State College of
Institutes San Francisco State Washington College
Museums The Metropolitan Museum,
Libraries the Louvre, the Library of
Congress, the Huntington Library
Buildings Independence Hall, the Empire State Building,
Carnegie Hall, Wheeler the Medical-Dental
Auditorium Building, the Civic Auditorium
Businesses Penney’s, Joe’s Cafe, the J.C. Penney Company,
(stores, restaurants, Mary’s Beauty Shop, the All-Nite Grocery Store, firms, etc.) Hotel Ambassador the Feather Mattress
Company, the Fox Theatre, the Statler Hotel
Holidays Christmas, the Fourth (4th) of July, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, Washington’s Birthday
Charters, the United Nations Charter,
Clubs, the Rotary Club, the Foreign Committees, Relations Committee (of the Doctrines, etc. Senate), the Monroe Doctrine
There is a Brazilian in the store.
He is the Russian I met recently.
Norwegians are fond of winter sports.
Do the Americans eat as much ice cream as the Italians?
The British are known for their civilized ritual of high tea.
The French have made their mark in the fashion world.
The Mitsubishis are Japanese.
Hans is German.