I’m wondering if the use of “me” in the sentence below has become acceptable. I think it should be “I” or “I was.” But I hear “me” so often, even from well known writers, that I’d like your opinion.
He was ten years older than me.
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You are correct to say that the pronoun should be "I," a subject pronoun, rather than "me," an object pronoun. As you indicate, one could also use "I was"; conversely, we could not say "me was." The following rule from Real Good Grammar, Too applies: "A pronoun which comes at the end of the sentence following than or as should be in the subject case when it is the subject of an understood verb" (p. 139). In your sentence, the pronoun "I" is the subject of the stated or unstated verb "was."
And, no, this usage (He was ten years older than me), though quite common, especially in spoken English, is still unacceptable in academic and business communication - whether spoken or written.